Grade UNS 31803 is similar to:
- EN 1.4462Z
- UNS S31803
- UNS S32205
- BS 318S13
|Chemical Element||% Present|
0.00 - 0.03
21.00 - 23.00
0.00 - 0.03
0.00 - 0.02
4.50 - 6.50
0.08 - 0.20
2.50 - 3.50
450 Min MPa
620 Min MPa
Elongation A50 mm
25 Min %
290 Max HB
General Physical Properties
13.7 x10^-6 /K
Modulus of Elasticity
0.85 x10^-6 Ω .m
- Chemical processing, transport and storage
- Oil and gas exploration and offshore rigs
- Oil and gas refining
- Marine environments
- Pollution control equipment
- Pulp & paper manufacturing
- Chemical process plant
- High resistance to stress corrosion cracking
- High resistance to general corrosion, pitting, and crevice corrosion
- High resistance to erosion corrosion and corrosion fatigue
- High mechanical strength - roughly twice the proof strength of austenitic stainless steel
- Physical properties that offer design advantages
- Good weldability
Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.
Duplex stainless steels have good weldability. All standard welding processes can be used. They are not quite as easily welded as the austenitic grades but low thermal expansion in duplex grades reduces distortion and residual stresses after welding. The recommended filler material for 2205 stainless steel is 2209.
Duplex stainless steels cannot be hardened by heat treatment. They can however be work hardened.
Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to around 1100°C.
The high chromium content of duplex stainless steels that protects against corrosion, causes embrittlement at temperatures over about 300°C.
At low temperatures duplex stainless steels have better ductility than the ferritic and martensitic grades. Duplex grades can readily be used down to at least -50°C.
Duplex stainless steels are extremely corrosion resistant. They have high resistance to intergranular corrosion. Even in chloride and sulphide environments, duplex stainless steels exhibit very high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.
The super duplex grades are even more resistant to corrosion.
Although machinable, the high strengths of duplex stainless steels makes machining difficult. As an example, machining of 2205 is around 20% slower than for 304.
Machining can be enhanced by using the following rules:
- Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening.
- Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material.
- Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work
- Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.